Framework for Action

To identify good practices of immunization adding value to PHC we conducted a rapid scan of peer reviewed and grey literature, and sourced examples through outreach to immunization and PHC stakeholders. We mapped factors constraining and enabling these good practices to the levers in the WHO-UNICEF PHC TOC.


  • We did not conduct a systematic review of the literature on the link between immunization and PHC strengthening.
  • We found a bias in the immunization literature toward measuring outcomes related to routine immunization (RI), but not measuring non-immunization outcomes related to PHC.
  • As a result, we highlighted activities exhibiting a strong plausibility of contributing to strengthened PHC, even where empirical evidence is lacking. There is a need to more fully evaluate these approaches and other strategies whereby immunization seeks to strengthen PHC.