Supply & Sustainability


All countries have a reliable supply of appropriate and affordable vaccines of assured quality, and sustainable financing for immunization programmes.


Build and maintain healthy global markets across all vaccine antigens.

Ensure sufficient financial resources for immunization programmes in all countries.

Increase immunization expenditure from domestic resources in aid-dependent countries, and when transitioning away from aid, secure government funding to achieve and sustain high coverage for all vaccines.

Key areas of focus:

Innovation and affordability: Ensure that the supply of and access to new vaccines meet country needs and that vaccines are introduced in a timely manner, regardless of a country’s wealth, and at a price that is affordable, to ensure the supply.

Vaccine forecasting, procurement and supply: Improve national and global forecasting, planning and procurement capability to safeguard affordable, sustainable supplies, and strengthen relations with manufacturers to ensure that vaccine production and supply meet national needs in all countries.

Sources of assured quality vaccines: Strengthen regulatory capacity in all countries to improve timely access to vaccines of assured quality and to allow diversification of manufacturing sources.

Supply for emergency situations: Strengthen mechanisms for rapid access in emergencies, outbreaks or pandemics and for people who require humanitarian aid. The mechanisms include sustainable manufacture and new means for rapid scaling up of production to meet surge requirements and rapid access.

Sufficient, predictable resources: Ensure that funding from all sources is sufficient to procure and deliver recommended vaccines universally.

Immunization financing: Ensure good governance, stewardship and accountability of financing for immunization programmes for optimal performance and best value for money.

Partner alignment: Streamline and align partnerships for immunization, primary health care or integrated financing, and ensure effective global collaboration in which the roles, responsibilities and accountability of all partners are clearly defined, transparent and monitored.

Sustainable transitions: Ensure mechanisms for smooth transition of countries from donor-supported programmes, while maintaining and enhancing their immunization programmes.

Application of the core principles:

People-centred. Anticipation of, preparedness for and response to outbreaks and emergencies will include adaptation of interventions to meet all the needs of affected individuals, including mobile and displaced populations, and tailored interventions based on local knowledge. Mechanisms to ensure accountability to affected people should be in place for continual improvement of emergency vaccination interventions and transition to longer-term services.

Country-owned. National authorities will coordinate efforts to handle emergencies and outbreaks with local authorities, and services will be delivered by trained local staff and community mobilization networks. In crises in which national authorities do not coordinate provision of services, access to impartial, independently provided health care will be ensured.

Partnership-based. Partnerships will be built to prioritize and support capacity building, planning and leadership of local and national organizations for coordinated provision of health care, including vaccination, in such a way as to support existing health systems and surveillance strategies during outbreaks and other acute emergencies and also in settings of humanitarian aid.

Data-guided. Routine, systematic collection of disaggregated data will be promoted to target vaccination to the most vulnerable populations and those at risk of exclusion. Research and evaluation will be conducted to generate evidence on novel approaches to identifying outbreaks early and to deliver vaccination and health services during outbreaks, other acute emergencies and in settings of humanitarian aid.